Ammonia First aid
First Aid for Eye Contact:
The extent of eye injury is dependent upon the duration of the exposure and concentration of the gas or liquid. Even low air ammonia concentrations can be very irritating to the eyes. Permanent eye damage is not unlikely in higher concentrations.
Contact lenses should never be worn when working with ammonia.
Immediately flush eyes for at least 15 minutes keeping the eyelids open.
First Aid for Skin Contact:
Ammonia gas may cause skin irritation especially where skin is moist (perspiration). Patients exposed to only mild ammonia gas and have no skin or eye irritation do not necessarily require decontamination unless advised by a medical professional. Ammonia liquid may cause extensive skin damage resulting from dehydration, freezing and the corrosive action of ammonium solutions.
Seek fresh air upwind of the source. Flush exposed areas thoroughly and preferably with luke-warm water. This is to firstly encourage de-contamination in the first place as well as prevent hypothermia. It also provides better cleansing by enlarging the skins surface. If only cold water is available, irrigate in short intervals and provide blankets and quickly shelter them in a warm and dry environment to maintain safe body temperature.
If clothing is frozen to skin, thaw out area first with water before removing clothing. Clothing that is contaminated with ammonia can cause secondary exposure to responders so use extreme caution.
Only once the decontamination has occurred or advised by a medical professional, Vaseline® or opaque oils can be used to seal the wound, initiate the healing process and some provide pain relief (Note this is from personal experience and not medically approved)
First Aid for Inhalation:
Even at low concentrations, ammonia vapor is very irritating to the nose, mouth, throat and lungs. The airway may swell and constrict, making respiration difficult for those exposed. Because of a child's narrow airway, they are especially susceptible to breathing difficulties if exposed.
Move the person to fresh air up wind. If breathing has stopped, perform artificial resuscitation with caution as lungs maybe highly contaminated, administer medical oxygen if available and trained.